小猿大圣

GitHub - airbnb/javascript: JavaScript Style Guide

小猿大圣 · 2017-01-19推荐 · 200阅读 原文链接

Table of Contents

  1. Types

  2. References

  3. Objects

  4. Arrays

  5. Destructuring

  6. Strings

  7. Functions

  8. Arrow Functions

  9. Classes & Constructors

  10. Modules

  11. Iterators and Generators

  12. Properties

  13. Variables

  14. Hoisting

  15. Comparison Operators & Equality

  16. Blocks

  17. Comments

  18. Whitespace

  19. Commas

  20. Semicolons

  21. Type Casting & Coercion

  22. Naming Conventions

  23. Accessors

  24. Events

  25. jQuery

  26. ECMAScript 5 Compatibility

  27. ECMAScript 6+ (ES 2015+) Styles

  28. Testing

  29. Performance

  30. Resources

  31. In the Wild

  32. Translation

  33. The JavaScript Style Guide Guide

  34. Chat With Us About JavaScript

  35. Contributors

  36. License

Types

  • 1.1 Primitives: When you access a primitive type you work directly on its value.

  • string

  • number

  • boolean

  • null

  • undefined

    const foo = 1;
    let bar = foo;

    bar = 9;

    console.log(foo, bar); // => 1, 9
  • 1.2 Complex: When you access a complex type you work on a reference to its value.

  • object

  • array

  • function

    const foo = [1, 2];
    const bar = foo;

    bar[0] = 9;

    console.log(foo[0], bar[0]); // => 9, 9

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References

Why? This ensures that you can't reassign your references, which can lead to bugs and difficult to comprehend code.

    // bad
    var a = 1;
    var b = 2;

    // good
    const a = 1;
    const b = 2;

Why? let is block-scoped rather than function-scoped like var.

    // bad
    var count = 1;
    if (true) {
      count += 1;
    }

    // good, use the let.
    let count = 1;
    if (true) {
      count += 1;
    }
  • 2.3 Note that both let and const are block-scoped.
    // const and let only exist in the blocks they are defined in.
    {
      let a = 1;
      const b = 1;
    }
    console.log(a); // ReferenceError
    console.log(b); // ReferenceError

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Objects

    // bad
    const item = new Object();

    // good
    const item = {};
  • 3.2 Use computed property names when creating objects with dynamic property names.

Why? They allow you to define all the properties of an object in one place.

    function getKey(k) {
      return a key named ${k};
    }

    // bad
    const obj = {
      id: 5,
      name: 'San Francisco',
    };
    obj[getKey('enabled')] = true;

    // good
    const obj = {
      id: 5,
      name: 'San Francisco',
      [getKey('enabled')]: true,
    };
    // bad
    const atom = {
      value: 1,

      addValue: function (value) {
        return atom.value + value;
      },
    };

    // good
    const atom = {
      value: 1,

      addValue(value) {
        return atom.value + value;
      },
    };

Why? It is shorter to write and descriptive.

    const lukeSkywalker = 'Luke Skywalker';

    // bad
    const obj = {
      lukeSkywalker: lukeSkywalker,
    };

    // good
    const obj = {
      lukeSkywalker,
    };
  • 3.5 Group your shorthand properties at the beginning of your object declaration.

Why? It's easier to tell which properties are using the shorthand.

    const anakinSkywalker = 'Anakin Skywalker';
    const lukeSkywalker = 'Luke Skywalker';

    // bad
    const obj = {
      episodeOne: 1,
      twoJediWalkIntoACantina: 2,
      lukeSkywalker,
      episodeThree: 3,
      mayTheFourth: 4,
      anakinSkywalker,
    };

    // good
    const obj = {
      lukeSkywalker,
      anakinSkywalker,
      episodeOne: 1,
      twoJediWalkIntoACantina: 2,
      episodeThree: 3,
      mayTheFourth: 4,
    };

Why? In general we consider it subjectively easier to read. It improves syntax highlighting, and is also more easily optimized by many JS engines.

    // bad
    const bad = {
      'foo': 3,
      'bar': 4,
      'data-blah': 5,
    };

    // good
    const good = {
      foo: 3,
      bar: 4,
      'data-blah': 5,
    };
  • 3.7 Do not call Object.prototype methods directly, such as hasOwnProperty, propertyIsEnumerable, and isPrototypeOf.

Why? These methods may be shadowed by properties on the object in question - consider { hasOwnProperty: false } - or, the object may be a null object (Object.create(null)).

    // bad
    console.log(object.hasOwnProperty(key));

    // good
    console.log(Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(object, key));

    // best
    const has = Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty; // cache the lookup once, in module scope.
    /* or */
    import has from 'has';
    …
    console.log(has.call(object, key));
  • 3.8 Prefer the object spread operator over Object.assign to shallow-copy objects. Use the object rest operator to get a new object with certain properties omitted.
    // very bad
    const original = { a: 1, b: 2 };
    const copy = Object.assign(original, { c: 3 }); // this mutates original ಠ_ಠ
    delete copy.a; // so does this

    // bad
    const original = { a: 1, b: 2 };
    const copy = Object.assign({}, original, { c: 3 }); // copy => { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 }

    // good
    const original = { a: 1, b: 2 };
    const copy = { ...original, c: 3 }; // copy => { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 }

    const { a, ...noA } = copy; // noA => { b: 2, c: 3 }

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Arrays

    // bad
    const items = new Array();

    // good
    const items = [];
  • 4.2 Use Array#push instead of direct assignment to add items to an array.
    const someStack = [];

    // bad
    someStack[someStack.length] = 'abracadabra';

    // good
    someStack.push('abracadabra');
  • 4.3 Use array spreads ... to copy arrays.
    // bad
    const len = items.length;
    const itemsCopy = [];
    let i;

    for (i = 0; i < len; i += 1) {
      itemsCopy[i] = items[i];
    }

    // good
    const itemsCopy = [...items];
  • 4.4 To convert an array-like object to an array, use Array.from.
    const foo = document.querySelectorAll('.foo');
    const nodes = Array.from(foo);
  • 4.5 Use return statements in array method callbacks. It's ok to omit the return if the function body consists of a single statement following 8.2. eslint: array-callback-return
    // good
    [1, 2, 3].map((x) => {
      const y = x + 1;
      return x * y;
    });

    // good
    [1, 2, 3].map(x => x + 1);

    // bad
    const flat = {};
    [[0, 1], [2, 3], [4, 5]].reduce((memo, item, index) => {
      const flatten = memo.concat(item);
      flat[index] = flatten;
    });

    // good
    const flat = {};
    [[0, 1], [2, 3], [4, 5]].reduce((memo, item, index) => {
      const flatten = memo.concat(item);
      flat[index] = flatten;
      return flatten;
    });

    // bad
    inbox.filter((msg) => {
      const { subject, author } = msg;
      if (subject === 'Mockingbird') {
        return author === 'Harper Lee';
      } else {
        return false;
      }
    });

    // good
    inbox.filter((msg) => {
      const { subject, author } = msg;
      if (subject === 'Mockingbird') {
        return author === 'Harper Lee';
      }

      return false;
    });

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Destructuring

Why? Destructuring saves you from creating temporary references for those properties.

    // bad
    function getFullName(user) {
      const firstName = user.firstName;
      const lastName = user.lastName;

      return ${firstName} ${lastName};
    }

    // good
    function getFullName(user) {
      const { firstName, lastName } = user;
      return ${firstName} ${lastName};
    }

    // best
    function getFullName({ firstName, lastName }) {
      return ${firstName} ${lastName};
    }
    const arr = [1, 2, 3, 4];

    // bad
    const first = arr[0];
    const second = arr[1];

    // good
    const [first, second] = arr;

Why? You can add new properties over time or change the order of things without breaking call sites.

    // bad
    function processInput(input) {
      // then a miracle occurs
      return [left, right, top, bottom];
    }

    // the caller needs to think about the order of return data
    const [left, __, top] = processInput(input);

    // good
    function processInput(input) {
      // then a miracle occurs
      return { left, right, top, bottom };
    }

    // the caller selects only the data they need
    const { left, top } = processInput(input);

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Strings

    // bad
    const name = "Capt. Janeway";

    // bad - template literals should contain interpolation or newlines
    const name = Capt. Janeway;

    // good
    const name = 'Capt. Janeway';
  • 6.2 Strings that cause the line to go over 100 characters should not be written across multiple lines using string concatenation.

Why? Broken strings are painful to work with and make code less searchable.

    // bad
    const errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because \
    of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do \
    with this, you would get nowhere \
    fast.';

    // bad
    const errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because ' +
      'of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do ' +
      'with this, you would get nowhere fast.';

    // good
    const errorMessage = 'This is a super long error that was thrown because of Batman. When you stop to think about how Batman had anything to do with this, you would get nowhere fast.';

Why? Template strings give you a readable, concise syntax with proper newlines and string interpolation features.

    // bad
    function sayHi(name) {
      return 'How are you, ' + name + '?';
    }

    // bad
    function sayHi(name) {
      return ['How are you, ', name, '?'].join();
    }

    // bad
    function sayHi(name) {
      return How are you, ${ name }?;
    }

    // good
    function sayHi(name) {
      return How are you, ${name}?;
    }
  • 6.4 Never use eval() on a string, it opens too many vulnerabilities.

  • 6.5 Do not unnecessarily escape characters in strings. eslint: no-useless-escape

Why? Backslashes harm readability, thus they should only be present when necessary.

    // bad
    const foo = '\'this\' \i\s \"quoted\"';

    // good
    const foo = '\'this\' is "quoted"';
    const foo = my name is '${name}';

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Functions

Why? Function declarations are hoisted, which means that it’s easy - too easy - to reference the function before it is defined in the file. This harms readability and maintainability. If you find that a function’s definition is large or complex enough that it is interfering with understanding the rest of the file, then perhaps it’s time to extract it to its own module! Don’t forget to name the expression - anonymous functions can make it harder to locate the problem in an Error's call stack. (Discussion)

    // bad
    const foo = function () {
      // ...
    };

    // bad
    function foo() {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    const foo = function bar() {
      // ...
    };

Why? An immediately invoked function expression is a single unit - wrapping both it, and its invocation parens, in parens, cleanly expresses this. Note that in a world with modules everywhere, you almost never need an IIFE.

    // immediately-invoked function expression (IIFE)
    (function () {
      console.log('Welcome to the Internet. Please follow me.');
    }());
  • 7.3 Never declare a function in a non-function block (if, while, etc). Assign the function to a variable instead. Browsers will allow you to do it, but they all interpret it differently, which is bad news bears. eslint: no-loop-func

  • 7.4 Note: ECMA-262 defines a block as a list of statements. A function declaration is not a statement. Read ECMA-262's note on this issue.

    // bad
    if (currentUser) {
      function test() {
        console.log('Nope.');
      }
    }

    // good
    let test;
    if (currentUser) {
      test = () => {
        console.log('Yup.');
      };
    }
  • 7.5 Never name a parameter arguments. This will take precedence over the arguments object that is given to every function scope.
    // bad
    function foo(name, options, arguments) {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    function foo(name, options, args) {
      // ...
    }

Why? ... is explicit about which arguments you want pulled. Plus, rest arguments are a real Array, and not merely Array-like like arguments.

    // bad
    function concatenateAll() {
      const args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments);
      return args.join('');
    }

    // good
    function concatenateAll(...args) {
      return args.join('');
    }
  • 7.7 Use default parameter syntax rather than mutating function arguments.
    // really bad
    function handleThings(opts) {
      // No! We shouldn't mutate function arguments.
      // Double bad: if opts is falsy it'll be set to an object which may
      // be what you want but it can introduce subtle bugs.
      opts = opts || {};
      // ...
    }

    // still bad
    function handleThings(opts) {
      if (opts === void 0) {
        opts = {};
      }
      // ...
    }

    // good
    function handleThings(opts = {}) {
      // ...
    }
  • 7.8 Avoid side effects with default parameters.

Why? They are confusing to reason about.

    var b = 1;
    // bad
    function count(a = b++) {
      console.log(a);
    }
    count();  // 1
    count();  // 2
    count(3); // 3
    count();  // 3
  • 7.9 Always put default parameters last.
    // bad
    function handleThings(opts = {}, name) {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    function handleThings(name, opts = {}) {
      // ...
    }
  • 7.10 Never use the Function constructor to create a new function. eslint: no-new-func

Why? Creating a function in this way evaluates a string similarly to eval(), which opens vulnerabilities.

    // bad
    var add = new Function('a', 'b', 'return a + b');

    // still bad
    var subtract = Function('a', 'b', 'return a - b');

Why? Consistency is good, and you shouldn’t have to add or remove a space when adding or removing a name.

    // bad
    const f = function(){};
    const g = function (){};
    const h = function() {};

    // good
    const x = function () {};
    const y = function a() {};

Why? Manipulating objects passed in as parameters can cause unwanted variable side effects in the original caller.

    // bad
    function f1(obj) {
      obj.key = 1;
    };

    // good
    function f2(obj) {
      const key = Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(obj, 'key') ? obj.key : 1;
    };

Why? Reassigning parameters can lead to unexpected behavior, especially when accessing the arguments object. It can also cause optimization issues, especially in V8.

    // bad
    function f1(a) {
      a = 1;
      // ...
    }

    function f2(a) {
      if (!a) { a = 1; }
      // ...
    }

    // good
    function f3(a) {
      const b = a || 1;
      // ...
    }

    function f4(a = 1) {
      // ...
    }
  • 7.14 Prefer the use of the spread operator ... to call variadic functions. eslint: prefer-spread

Why? It's cleaner, you don't need to supply a context, and you can not easily compose new with apply.

    // bad
    const x = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
    console.log.apply(console, x);

    // good
    const x = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
    console.log(...x);

    // bad
    new (Function.prototype.bind.apply(Date, [null, 2016, 8, 5]));

    // good
    new Date(...[2016, 8, 5]);
  • 7.15 Functions with multiline signatures, or invocations, should be indented just like every other multiline list in this guide: with each item on a line by itself, with a trailing comma on the last item.
    // bad
    function foo(bar,
                 baz,
                 quux) {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    function foo(
      bar,
      baz,
      quux,
    ) {
      // ...
    }

    // bad
    console.log(foo,
      bar,
      baz);

    // good
    console.log(
      foo,
      bar,
      baz,
    );

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Arrow Functions

Why? It creates a version of the function that executes in the context of this, which is usually what you want, and is a more concise syntax.

Why not? If you have a fairly complicated function, you might move that logic out into its own function declaration.

    // bad
    [1, 2, 3].map(function (x) {
      const y = x + 1;
      return x * y;
    });

    // good
    [1, 2, 3].map((x) => {
      const y = x + 1;
      return x * y;
    });

Why? Syntactic sugar. It reads well when multiple functions are chained together.

    // bad
    [1, 2, 3].map(number => {
      const nextNumber = number + 1;
      A string containing the ${nextNumber}.;
    });

    // good
    [1, 2, 3].map(number => A string containing the ${number}.);

    // good
    [1, 2, 3].map((number) => {
      const nextNumber = number + 1;
      return A string containing the ${nextNumber}.;
    });

    // good
    [1, 2, 3].map((number, index) => ({
      [index]: number
    }));
  • 8.3 In case the expression spans over multiple lines, wrap it in parentheses for better readability.

Why? It shows clearly where the function starts and ends.

    // bad
    ['get', 'post', 'put'].map(httpMethod => Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(
        httpMagicObjectWithAVeryLongName,
        httpMethod
      )
    );

    // good
    ['get', 'post', 'put'].map(httpMethod => (
      Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(
        httpMagicObjectWithAVeryLongName,
        httpMethod
      )
    ));

Why? Less visual clutter.

    // bad
    [1, 2, 3].map((x) => x * x);

    // good
    [1, 2, 3].map(x => x * x);

    // good
    [1, 2, 3].map(number => (
      A long string with the ${number}. It’s so long that we don’t want it to take up space on the .map line!
    ));

    // bad
    [1, 2, 3].map(x => {
      const y = x + 1;
      return x * y;
    });

    // good
    [1, 2, 3].map((x) => {
      const y = x + 1;
      return x * y;
    });
  • 8.5 Avoid confusing arrow function syntax (=>) with comparison operators (=). eslint: no-confusing-arrow
    // bad
    const itemHeight = item => item.height > 256 ? item.largeSize : item.smallSize;

    // bad
    const itemHeight = (item) => item.height > 256 ? item.largeSize : item.smallSize;

    // good
    const itemHeight = item => (item.height > 256 ? item.largeSize : item.smallSize);

    // good
    const itemHeight = (item) => {
      const { height, largeSize, smallSize } = item;
      return height > 256 ? largeSize : smallSize;
    };

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Classes & Constructors

  • 9.1 Always use class. Avoid manipulating prototype directly.

Why? class syntax is more concise and easier to reason about.

    // bad
    function Queue(contents = []) {
      this.queue = [...contents];
    }
    Queue.prototype.pop = function () {
      const value = this.queue[0];
      this.queue.splice(0, 1);
      return value;
    };

    // good
    class Queue {
      constructor(contents = []) {
        this.queue = [...contents];
      }
      pop() {
        const value = this.queue[0];
        this.queue.splice(0, 1);
        return value;
      }
    }
  • 9.2 Use extends for inheritance.

Why? It is a built-in way to inherit prototype functionality without breaking instanceof.

    // bad
    const inherits = require('inherits');
    function PeekableQueue(contents) {
      Queue.apply(this, contents);
    }
    inherits(PeekableQueue, Queue);
    PeekableQueue.prototype.peek = function () {
      return this._queue[0];
    }

    // good
    class PeekableQueue extends Queue {
      peek() {
        return this._queue[0];
      }
    }
  • 9.3 Methods can return this to help with method chaining.
    // bad
    Jedi.prototype.jump = function () {
      this.jumping = true;
      return true;
    };

    Jedi.prototype.setHeight = function (height) {
      this.height = height;
    };

    const luke = new Jedi();
    luke.jump(); // => true
    luke.setHeight(20); // => undefined

    // good
    class Jedi {
      jump() {
        this.jumping = true;
        return this;
      }

      setHeight(height) {
        this.height = height;
        return this;
      }
    }

    const luke = new Jedi();

    luke.jump()
      .setHeight(20);
  • 9.4 It's okay to write a custom toString() method, just make sure it works successfully and causes no side effects.
    class Jedi {
      constructor(options = {}) {
        this.name = options.name || 'no name';
      }

      getName() {
        return this.name;
      }

      toString() {
        return Jedi - ${this.getName()};
      }
    }
  • 9.5 Classes have a default constructor if one is not specified. An empty constructor function or one that just delegates to a parent class is unnecessary. eslint: no-useless-constructor
    // bad
    class Jedi {
      constructor() {}

      getName() {
        return this.name;
      }
    }

    // bad
    class Rey extends Jedi {
      constructor(...args) {
        super(...args);
      }
    }

    // good
    class Rey extends Jedi {
      constructor(...args) {
        super(...args);
        this.name = 'Rey';
      }
    }

Why? Duplicate class member declarations will silently prefer the last one - having duplicates is almost certainly a bug.

    // bad
    class Foo {
      bar() { return 1; }
      bar() { return 2; }
    }

    // good
    class Foo {
      bar() { return 1; }
    }

    // good
    class Foo {
      bar() { return 2; }
    }

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Modules

  • 10.1 Always use modules (import/export) over a non-standard module system. You can always transpile to your preferred module system.

Why? Modules are the future, let's start using the future now.

    // bad
    const AirbnbStyleGuide = require('./AirbnbStyleGuide');
    module.exports = AirbnbStyleGuide.es6;

    // ok
    import AirbnbStyleGuide from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
    export default AirbnbStyleGuide.es6;

    // best
    import { es6 } from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
    export default es6;
  • 10.2 Do not use wildcard imports.

Why? This makes sure you have a single default export.

    // bad
    import * as AirbnbStyleGuide from './AirbnbStyleGuide';

    // good
    import AirbnbStyleGuide from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
  • 10.3 And do not export directly from an import.

Why? Although the one-liner is concise, having one clear way to import and one clear way to export makes things consistent.

    // bad
    // filename es6.js
    export { es6 as default } from './AirbnbStyleGuide';

    // good
    // filename es6.js
    import { es6 } from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
    export default es6;

Why? Having multiple lines that import from the same path can make code harder to maintain.

      // bad
      import foo from 'foo';
      // … some other imports … //
      import { named1, named2 } from 'foo';

      // good
      import foo, { named1, named2 } from 'foo';

      // good
      import foo, {
        named1,
        named2,
      } from 'foo';

Why? Mutation should be avoided in general, but in particular when exporting mutable bindings. While this technique may be needed for some special cases, in general, only constant references should be exported.

      // bad
      let foo = 3;
      export { foo }

      // good
      const foo = 3;
      export { foo }
      // bad
      export function foo() {}

      // good
      export default function foo() {}

Why? Since imports are hoisted, keeping them all at the top prevents surprising behavior.

      // bad
      import foo from 'foo';
      foo.init();

      import bar from 'bar';

      // good
      import foo from 'foo';
      import bar from 'bar';

      foo.init();
  • 10.8 Multiline imports should be indented just like multiline array and object literals.

Why? The curly braces follow the same indentation rules as every other curly brace block in the style guide, as do the trailing commas.

    // bad
    import {longNameA, longNameB, longNameC, longNameD, longNameE} from 'path';

    // good
    import {
      longNameA,
      longNameB,
      longNameC,
      longNameD,
      longNameE,
    } from 'path';

Why? Since using Webpack syntax in the imports couples the code to a module bundler. Prefer using the loader syntax in webpack.config.js.

      // bad
      import fooSass from 'css!sass!foo.scss';
      import barCss from 'style!css!bar.css';

      // good
      import fooSass from 'foo.scss';
      import barCss from 'bar.css';

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Iterators and Generators

Why? This enforces our immutable rule. Dealing with pure functions that return values is easier to reason about than side effects.

Use map() / every() / filter() / find() / findIndex() / reduce() / some() / ... to iterate over arrays, and Object.keys() / Object.values() / Object.entries() to produce arrays so you can iterate over objects.

    const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

    // bad
    let sum = 0;
    for (let num of numbers) {
      sum += num;
    }
    sum === 15;

    // good
    let sum = 0;
    numbers.forEach(num => sum += num);
    sum === 15;

    // best (use the functional force)
    const sum = numbers.reduce((total, num) => total + num, 0);
    sum === 15;

    // bad
    const increasedByOne = [];
    for (let i = 0; i < numbers.length; i++) {
      increasedByOne.push(numbers[i] + 1);
    }

    // good
    const increasedByOne = [];
    numbers.forEach(num => increasedByOne.push(num + 1));

    // best (keeping it functional)
    const increasedByOne = numbers.map(num => num + 1);
  • 11.2 Don't use generators for now.

Why? They don't transpile well to ES5.

Why? function and * are part of the same conceptual keyword - * is not a modifier for function, function* is a unique construct, different from function.

    // bad
    function * foo() {
      // ...
    }

    // bad
    const bar = function * () {
      // ...
    }

    // bad
    const baz = function *() {
      // ...
    }

    // bad
    const quux = function*() {
      // ...
    }

    // bad
    function*foo() {
      // ...
    }

    // bad
    function *foo() {
      // ...
    }

    // very bad
    function
    *
    foo() {
      // ...
    }

    // very bad
    const wat = function
    *
    () {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    function* foo() {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    const foo = function* () {
      // ...
    }

⬆ back to top

Properties

    const luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28,
    };

    // bad
    const isJedi = luke['jedi'];

    // good
    const isJedi = luke.jedi;
  • 12.2 Use bracket notation [] when accessing properties with a variable.
    const luke = {
      jedi: true,
      age: 28,
    };

    function getProp(prop) {
      return luke[prop];
    }

    const isJedi = getProp('jedi');

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Variables

  • 13.1 Always use const to declare variables. Not doing so will result in global variables. We want to avoid polluting the global namespace. Captain Planet warned us of that. eslint: no-undef prefer-const
    // bad
    superPower = new SuperPower();

    // good
    const superPower = new SuperPower();

Why? It's easier to add new variable declarations this way, and you never have to worry about swapping out a ; for a , or introducing punctuation-only diffs. You can also step through each declaration with the debugger, instead of jumping through all of them at once.

    // bad
    const items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true,
        dragonball = 'z';

    // bad
    // (compare to above, and try to spot the mistake)
    const items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true;
        dragonball = 'z';

    // good
    const items = getItems();
    const goSportsTeam = true;
    const dragonball = 'z';
  • 13.3 Group all your consts and then group all your lets.

Why? This is helpful when later on you might need to assign a variable depending on one of the previous assigned variables.

    // bad
    let i, len, dragonball,
        items = getItems(),
        goSportsTeam = true;

    // bad
    let i;
    const items = getItems();
    let dragonball;
    const goSportsTeam = true;
    let len;

    // good
    const goSportsTeam = true;
    const items = getItems();
    let dragonball;
    let i;
    let length;
  • 13.4 Assign variables where you need them, but place them in a reasonable place.

Why? let and const are block scoped and not function scoped.

    // bad - unnecessary function call
    function checkName(hasName) {
      const name = getName();

      if (hasName === 'test') {
        return false;
      }

      if (name === 'test') {
        this.setName('');
        return false;
      }

      return name;
    }

    // good
    function checkName(hasName) {
      if (hasName === 'test') {
        return false;
      }

      const name = getName();

      if (name === 'test') {
        this.setName('');
        return false;
      }

      return name;
    }
  • 13.5 Don't chain variable assignments.

Why? Chaining variable assignments creates implicit global variables.

    // bad
    (function example() {
      // JavaScript interprets this as
      // let a = ( b = ( c = 1 ) );
      // The let keyword only applies to variable a; variables b and c become
      // global variables.
      let a = b = c = 1;
    }());

    console.log(a); // undefined
    console.log(b); // 1
    console.log(c); // 1

    // good
    (function example() {
      let a = 1;
      let b = a;
      let c = a;
    }());

    console.log(a); // undefined
    console.log(b); // undefined
    console.log(c); // undefined

    // the same applies for const
  • 13.6 Avoid using unary increments and decrements (++, --). eslint no-plusplus

Why? Per the eslint documentation, unary increment and decrement statements are subject to automatic semicolon insertion and can cause silent errors with incrementing or decrementing values within an application. It is also more expressive to mutate your values with statements like num += 1 instead of num++ or num ++. Disallowing unary increment and decrement statements also prevents you from pre-incrementing/pre-decrementing values unintentionally which can also cause unexpected behavior in your programs.

      // bad

      let array = [1, 2, 3];
      let num = 1;
      num++;
      --num;

      let sum = 0;
      let truthyCount = 0;
      for(let i = 0; i < array.length; i++){
        let value = array[i];
        sum += value;
        if (value) {
          truthyCount++;
        }
      }

      // good

      let array = [1, 2, 3];
      let num = 1;
      num += 1;
      num -= 1;

      const sum = array.reduce((a, b) => a + b, 0);
      const truthyCount = array.filter(Boolean).length;

⬆ back to top

Hoisting

    // we know this wouldn't work (assuming there
    // is no notDefined global variable)
    function example() {
      console.log(notDefined); // => throws a ReferenceError
    }

    // creating a variable declaration after you
    // reference the variable will work due to
    // variable hoisting. Note: the assignment
    // value of true is not hoisted.
    function example() {
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined
      var declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }

    // the interpreter is hoisting the variable
    // declaration to the top of the scope,
    // which means our example could be rewritten as:
    function example() {
      let declaredButNotAssigned;
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => undefined
      declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }

    // using const and let
    function example() {
      console.log(declaredButNotAssigned); // => throws a ReferenceError
      console.log(typeof declaredButNotAssigned); // => throws a ReferenceError
      const declaredButNotAssigned = true;
    }
  • 14.2 Anonymous function expressions hoist their variable name, but not the function assignment.
    function example() {
      console.log(anonymous); // => undefined

      anonymous(); // => TypeError anonymous is not a function

      var anonymous = function () {
        console.log('anonymous function expression');
      };
    }
  • 14.3 Named function expressions hoist the variable name, not the function name or the function body.
    function example() {
      console.log(named); // => undefined

      named(); // => TypeError named is not a function

      superPower(); // => ReferenceError superPower is not defined

      var named = function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      };
    }

    // the same is true when the function name
    // is the same as the variable name.
    function example() {
      console.log(named); // => undefined

      named(); // => TypeError named is not a function

      var named = function named() {
        console.log('named');
      };
    }
  • 14.4 Function declarations hoist their name and the function body.
    function example() {
      superPower(); // => Flying

      function superPower() {
        console.log('Flying');
      }
    }

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Comparison Operators & Equality

  • 15.1 Use === and !== over == and !=. eslint: eqeqeq

  • 15.2 Conditional statements such as the if statement evaluate their expression using coercion with the ToBoolean abstract method and always follow these simple rules:

  • Objects evaluate to true

  • Undefined evaluates to false

  • Null evaluates to false

  • Booleans evaluate to the value of the boolean

  • Numbers evaluate to false if +0, -0, or NaN, otherwise true

  • Strings evaluate to false if an empty string '', otherwise true

    if ([0] && []) {
      // true
      // an array (even an empty one) is an object, objects will evaluate to true
    }
  • 15.3 Use shortcuts for booleans, but explicit comparisons for strings and numbers.
    // bad
    if (isValid === true) {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    if (isValid) {
      // ...
    }

    // bad
    if (name) {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    if (name !== '') {
      // ...
    }

    // bad
    if (collection.length) {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    if (collection.length > 0) {
      // ...
    }
  • 15.4 For more information see Truth Equality and JavaScript by Angus Croll.

  • 15.5 Use braces to create blocks in case and default clauses that contain lexical declarations (e.g. let, const, function, and class).

Why? Lexical declarations are visible in the entire switch block but only get initialized when assigned, which only happens when its case is reached. This causes problems when multiple case clauses attempt to define the same thing.

eslint rules: no-case-declarations.

      // bad
      switch (foo) {
        case 1:
          let x = 1;
          break;
        case 2:
          const y = 2;
          break;
        case 3:
          function f() {
            // ...
          }
          break;
        default:
          class C {}
      }

      // good
      switch (foo) {
        case 1: {
          let x = 1;
          break;
        }
        case 2: {
          const y = 2;
          break;
        }
        case 3: {
          function f() {
            // ...
          }
          break;
        }
        case 4:
          bar();
          break;
        default: {
          class C {}
        }
      }
  • 15.6 Ternaries should not be nested and generally be single line expressions.

eslint rules: no-nested-ternary.

    // bad
    const foo = maybe1 > maybe2
      ? "bar"
      : value1 > value2 ? "baz" : null;

    // better
    const maybeNull = value1 > value2 ? 'baz' : null;

    const foo = maybe1 > maybe2
      ? 'bar'
      : maybeNull;

    // best
    const maybeNull = value1 > value2 ? 'baz' : null;

    const foo = maybe1 > maybe2 ? 'bar' : maybeNull;
  • 15.7 Avoid unneeded ternary statements.

eslint rules: no-unneeded-ternary.

    // bad
    const foo = a ? a : b;
    const bar = c ? true : false;
    const baz = c ? false : true;

    // good
    const foo = a || b;
    const bar = !!c;
    const baz = !c;

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Blocks

  • 16.1 Use braces with all multi-line blocks.
    // bad
    if (test)
      return false;

    // good
    if (test) return false;

    // good
    if (test) {
      return false;
    }

    // bad
    function foo() { return false; }

    // good
    function bar() {
      return false;
    }
    // bad
    if (test) {
      thing1();
      thing2();
    }
    else {
      thing3();
    }

    // good
    if (test) {
      thing1();
      thing2();
    } else {
      thing3();
    }

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Comments

  • 17.1 Use /** ... */ for multi-line comments.
    // bad
    // make() returns a new element
    // based on the passed in tag name
    //
    // @param {String} tag
    // @return {Element} element
    function make(tag) {

      // ...

      return element;
    }

    // good
    /**
     * make() returns a new element
     * based on the passed-in tag name
     */
    function make(tag) {

      // ...

      return element;
    }
  • 17.2 Use // for single line comments. Place single line comments on a newline above the subject of the comment. Put an empty line before the comment unless it's on the first line of a block.
    // bad
    const active = true;  // is current tab

    // good
    // is current tab
    const active = true;

    // bad
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');
      // set the default type to 'no type'
      const type = this._type || 'no type';

      return type;
    }

    // good
    function getType() {
      console.log('fetching type...');

      // set the default type to 'no type'
      const type = this._type || 'no type';

      return type;
    }

    // also good
    function getType() {
      // set the default type to 'no type'
      const type = this._type || 'no type';

      return type;
    }
    // bad
    //is current tab
    const active = true;

    // good
    // is current tab
    const active = true;

    // bad
    /**
     *make() returns a new element
     *based on the passed-in tag name
     */
    function make(tag) {

      // ...

      return element;
    }

    // good
    /**
     * make() returns a new element
     * based on the passed-in tag name
     */
    function make(tag) {

      // ...

      return element;
    }
  • 17.4 Prefixing your comments with FIXME or TODO helps other developers quickly understand if you're pointing out a problem that needs to be revisited, or if you're suggesting a solution to the problem that needs to be implemented. These are different than regular comments because they are actionable. The actions are FIXME: -- need to figure this out or TODO: -- need to implement.

  • 17.5 Use // FIXME: to annotate problems.

    class Calculator extends Abacus {
      constructor() {
        super();

        // FIXME: shouldn't use a global here
        total = 0;
      }
    }
  • 17.6 Use // TODO: to annotate solutions to problems.
    class Calculator extends Abacus {
      constructor() {
        super();

        // TODO: total should be configurable by an options param
        this.total = 0;
      }
    }

⬆ back to top

Whitespace

    // bad
    function foo() {
    ∙∙∙∙const name;
    }

    // bad
    function bar() {
    ∙const name;
    }

    // good
    function baz() {
    ∙∙const name;
    }
    // bad
    function test(){
      console.log('test');
    }

    // good
    function test() {
      console.log('test');
    }

    // bad
    dog.set('attr',{
      age: '1 year',
      breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog',
    });

    // good
    dog.set('attr', {
      age: '1 year',
      breed: 'Bernese Mountain Dog',
    });
  • 18.3 Place 1 space before the opening parenthesis in control statements (if, while etc.). Place no space between the argument list and the function name in function calls and declarations. eslint: keyword-spacing jscs: requireSpaceAfterKeywords
    // bad
    if(isJedi) {
      fight ();
    }

    // good
    if (isJedi) {
      fight();
    }

    // bad
    function fight () {
      console.log ('Swooosh!');
    }

    // good
    function fight() {
      console.log('Swooosh!');
    }
    // bad
    const x=y+5;

    // good
    const x = y + 5;
  • 18.5 End files with a single newline character. eslint: eol-last
    // bad
    import { es6 } from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
      // ...
    export default es6;
    // bad
    import { es6 } from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
      // ...
    export default es6;↵
    ↵
    // good
    import { es6 } from './AirbnbStyleGuide';
      // ...
    export default es6;↵
    // bad
    $('#items').find('.selected').highlight().end().find('.open').updateCount();

    // bad
    $('#items').
      find('.selected').
        highlight().
        end().
      find('.open').
        updateCount();

    // good
    $('#items')
      .find('.selected')
        .highlight()
        .end()
      .find('.open')
        .updateCount();

    // bad
    const leds = stage.selectAll('.led').data(data).enter().append('svg:svg').classed('led', true)
        .attr('width', (radius + margin) * 2).append('svg:g')
        .attr('transform', translate(${radius + margin},${radius + margin}))
        .call(tron.led);

    // good
    const leds = stage.selectAll('.led')
        .data(data)
      .enter().append('svg:svg')
        .classed('led', true)
        .attr('width', (radius + margin) * 2)
      .append('svg:g')
        .attr('transform', translate(${radius + margin},${radius + margin}))
        .call(tron.led);

    // good
    const leds = stage.selectAll('.led').data(data);
    // bad
    if (foo) {
      return bar;
    }
    return baz;

    // good
    if (foo) {
      return bar;
    }

    return baz;

    // bad
    const obj = {
      foo() {
      },
      bar() {
      },
    };
    return obj;

    // good
    const obj = {
      foo() {
      },

      bar() {
      },
    };

    return obj;

    // bad
    const arr = [
      function foo() {
      },
      function bar() {
      },
    ];
    return arr;

    // good
    const arr = [
      function foo() {
      },

      function bar() {
      },
    ];

    return arr;
    // bad
    function bar() {

      console.log(foo);

    }

    // also bad
    if (baz) {

      console.log(qux);
    } else {
      console.log(foo);

    }

    // good
    function bar() {
      console.log(foo);
    }

    // good
    if (baz) {
      console.log(qux);
    } else {
      console.log(foo);
    }
    // bad
    function bar( foo ) {
      return foo;
    }

    // good
    function bar(foo) {
      return foo;
    }

    // bad
    if ( foo ) {
      console.log(foo);
    }

    // good
    if (foo) {
      console.log(foo);
    }
    // bad
    const foo = [ 1, 2, 3 ];
    console.log(foo[ 0 ]);

    // good
    const foo = [1, 2, 3];
    console.log(foo[0]);
    // bad
    const foo = {clark: 'kent'};

    // good
    const foo = { clark: 'kent' };
  • 18.12 Avoid having lines of code that are longer than 100 characters (including whitespace). Note: per above, long strings are exempt from this rule, and should not be broken up. eslint: max-len jscs: maximumLineLength

Why? This ensures readability and maintainability.

    // bad
    const foo = jsonData && jsonData.foo && jsonData.foo.bar && jsonData.foo.bar.baz && jsonData.foo.bar.baz.quux && jsonData.foo.bar.baz.quux.xyzzy;

    // bad
    $.ajax({ method: 'POST', url: 'https://airbnb.com/', data: { name: 'John' } }).done(() => console.log('Congratulations!')).fail(() => console.log('You have failed this city.'));

    // good
    const foo = jsonData
      && jsonData.foo
      && jsonData.foo.bar
      && jsonData.foo.bar.baz
      && jsonData.foo.bar.baz.quux
      && jsonData.foo.bar.baz.quux.xyzzy;

    // good
    $.ajax({
      method: 'POST',
      url: 'https://airbnb.com/',
      data: { name: 'John' },
    })
      .done(() => console.log('Congratulations!'))
      .fail(() => console.log('You have failed this city.'));

⬆ back to top

Commas

    // bad
    const story = [
        once
      , upon
      , aTime
    ];

    // good
    const story = [
      once,
      upon,
      aTime,
    ];

    // bad
    const hero = {
        firstName: 'Ada'
      , lastName: 'Lovelace'
      , birthYear: 1815
      , superPower: 'computers'
    };

    // good
    const hero = {
      firstName: 'Ada',
      lastName: 'Lovelace',
      birthYear: 1815,
      superPower: 'computers',
    };

Why? This leads to cleaner git diffs. Also, transpilers like Babel will remove the additional trailing comma in the transpiled code which means you don't have to worry about the trailing comma problem in legacy browsers.

    // bad - git diff without trailing comma
    const hero = {
         firstName: 'Florence',
    -    lastName: 'Nightingale'
    +    lastName: 'Nightingale',
    +    inventorOf: ['coxcomb chart', 'modern nursing']
    };

    // good - git diff with trailing comma
    const hero = {
         firstName: 'Florence',
         lastName: 'Nightingale',
    +    inventorOf: ['coxcomb chart', 'modern nursing'],
    };
    // bad
    const hero = {
      firstName: 'Dana',
      lastName: 'Scully'
    };

    const heroes = [
      'Batman',
      'Superman'
    ];

    // good
    const hero = {
      firstName: 'Dana',
      lastName: 'Scully',
    };

    const heroes = [
      'Batman',
      'Superman',
    ];

    // bad
    function createHero(
      firstName,
      lastName,
      inventorOf
    ) {
      // does nothing
    }

    // good
    function createHero(
      firstName,
      lastName,
      inventorOf,
    ) {
      // does nothing
    }

    // good (note that a comma must not appear after a "rest" element)
    function createHero(
      firstName,
      lastName,
      inventorOf,
      ...heroArgs
    ) {
      // does nothing
    }

    // bad
    createHero(
      firstName,
      lastName,
      inventorOf
    );

    // good
    createHero(
      firstName,
      lastName,
      inventorOf,
    );

    // good (note that a comma must not appear after a "rest" element)
    createHero(
      firstName,
      lastName,
      inventorOf,
      ...heroArgs
    )

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Semicolons

    // bad
    (function () {
      const name = 'Skywalker'
      return name
    })()

    // good
    (function () {
      const name = 'Skywalker';
      return name;
    }());

    // good, but legacy (guards against the function becoming an argument when two files with IIFEs are concatenated)
    ;(() => {
      const name = 'Skywalker';
      return name;
    }());

Read more.

⬆ back to top

Type Casting & Coercion

  • 21.1 Perform type coercion at the beginning of the statement.

  • 21.2 Strings:

    // => this.reviewScore = 9;

    // bad
    const totalScore = this.reviewScore + ''; // invokes this.reviewScore.valueOf()

    // bad
    const totalScore = this.reviewScore.toString(); // isn't guaranteed to return a string

    // good
    const totalScore = String(this.reviewScore);
  • 21.3 Numbers: Use Number for type casting and parseInt always with a radix for parsing strings. eslint: radix
    const inputValue = '4';

    // bad
    const val = new Number(inputValue);

    // bad
    const val = +inputValue;

    // bad
    const val = inputValue >> 0;

    // bad
    const val = parseInt(inputValue);

    // good
    const val = Number(inputValue);

    // good
    const val = parseInt(inputValue, 10);
  • 21.4 If for whatever reason you are doing something wild and parseInt is your bottleneck and need to use Bitshift for performance reasons, leave a comment explaining why and what you're doing.
    // good
    /**
     * parseInt was the reason my code was slow.
     * Bitshifting the String to coerce it to a
     * Number made it a lot faster.
     */
    const val = inputValue >> 0;
  • 21.5 Note: Be careful when using bitshift operations. Numbers are represented as 64-bit values, but bitshift operations always return a 32-bit integer (source). Bitshift can lead to unexpected behavior for integer values larger than 32 bits. Discussion. Largest signed 32-bit Int is 2,147,483,647:
    2147483647 >> 0 //=> 2147483647
    2147483648 >> 0 //=> -2147483648
    2147483649 >> 0 //=> -2147483647
    const age = 0;

    // bad
    const hasAge = new Boolean(age);

    // good
    const hasAge = Boolean(age);

    // best
    const hasAge = !!age;

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Naming Conventions

  • 22.1 Avoid single letter names. Be descriptive with your naming. eslint: id-length
    // bad
    function q() {
      // ...
    }

    // good
    function query() {
      // ...
    }
    // bad
    const OBJEcttsssss = {};
    const this_is_my_object = {};
    function c() {}

    // good
    const thisIsMyObject = {};
    function thisIsMyFunction() {}
    // bad
    function user(options) {
      this.name = options.name;
    }

    const bad = new user({
      name: 'nope',
    });

    // good
    class User {
      constructor(options) {
        this.name = options.name;
      }
    }

    const good = new User({
      name: 'yup',
    });

Why? JavaScript does not have the concept of privacy in terms of properties or methods. Although a leading underscore is a common convention to mean “private”, in fact, these properties are fully public, and as such, are part of your public API contract. This convention might lead developers to wrongly think that a change won't count as breaking, or that tests aren't needed. tl;dr: if you want something to be “private”, it must not be observably present.

    // bad
    this.__firstName__ = 'Panda';
    this.firstName_ = 'Panda';
    this._firstName = 'Panda';

    // good
    this.firstName = 'Panda';
    // bad
    function foo() {
      const self = this;
      return function () {
        console.log(self);
      };
    }

    // bad
    function foo() {
      const that = this;
      return function () {
        console.log(that);
      };
    }

    // good
    function foo() {
      return () => {
        console.log(this);
      };
    }
  • 22.6 A base filename should exactly match the name of its default export.
    // file 1 contents
    class CheckBox {
      // ...
    }
    export default CheckBox;

    // file 2 contents
    export default function fortyTwo() { return 42; }

    // file 3 contents
    export default function insideDirectory() {}

    // in some other file
    // bad
    import CheckBox from './checkBox'; // PascalCase import/export, camelCase filename
    import FortyTwo from './FortyTwo'; // PascalCase import/filename, camelCase export
    import InsideDirectory from './InsideDirectory'; // PascalCase import/filename, camelCase export

    // bad
    import CheckBox from './check_box'; // PascalCase import/export, snake_case filename
    import forty_two from './forty_two'; // snake_case import/filename, camelCase export
    import inside_directory from './inside_directory'; // snake_case import, camelCase export
    import index from './inside_directory/index'; // requiring the index file explicitly
    import insideDirectory from './insideDirectory/index'; // requiring the index file explicitly

    // good
    import CheckBox from './CheckBox'; // PascalCase export/import/filename
    import fortyTwo from './fortyTwo'; // camelCase export/import/filename
    import insideDirectory from './insideDirectory'; // camelCase export/import/directory name/implicit "index"
    // ^ supports both insideDirectory.js and insideDirectory/index.js
  • 22.7 Use camelCase when you export-default a function. Your filename should be identical to your function's name.
    function makeStyleGuide() {
      // ...
    }

    export default makeStyleGuide;
  • 22.8 Use PascalCase when you export a constructor / class / singleton / function library / bare object.
    const AirbnbStyleGuide = {
      es6: {
      }
    };

    export default AirbnbStyleGuide;
  • 22.9 Acronyms and initialisms should always be all capitalized, or all lowercased.

Why? Names are for readability, not to appease a computer algorithm.

    // bad
    import SmsContainer from './containers/SmsContainer';

    // bad
    const HttpRequests = [
      // ...
    ];

    // good
    import SMSContainer from './containers/SMSContainer';

    // good
    const HTTPRequests = [
      // ...
    ];

    // best
    import TextMessageContainer from './containers/TextMessageContainer';

    // best
    const Requests = [
      // ...
    ];

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Accessors

  • 23.1 Accessor functions for properties are not required.

  • 23.2 Do not use JavaScript getters/setters as they cause unexpected side effects and are harder to test, maintain, and reason about. Instead, if you do make accessor functions, use getVal() and setVal('hello').

    // bad
    class Dragon {
      get age() {
        // ...
      }

      set age(value) {
        // ...
      }
    }

    // good
    class Dragon {
      getAge() {
        // ...
      }

      setAge(value) {
        // ...
      }
    }
  • 23.3 If the property/method is a boolean, use isVal() or hasVal().
    // bad
    if (!dragon.age()) {
      return false;
    }

    // good
    if (!dragon.hasAge()) {
      return false;
    }
  • 23.4 It's okay to create get() and set() functions, but be consistent.
    class Jedi {
      constructor(options = {}) {
        const lightsaber = options.lightsaber || 'blue';
        this.set('lightsaber', lightsaber);
      }

      set(key, val) {
        this[key] = val;
      }

      get(key) {
        return this[key];
      }
    }

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Events

  • 24.1 When attaching data payloads to events (whether DOM events or something more proprietary like Backbone events), pass a hash instead of a raw value. This allows a subsequent contributor to add more data to the event payload without finding and updating every handler for the event. For example, instead of:
    // bad
    $(this).trigger('listingUpdated', listing.id);

    ...

    $(this).on('listingUpdated', (e, listingId) => {
      // do something with listingId
    });

prefer:

    // good
    $(this).trigger('listingUpdated', { listingId: listing.id });

    ...

    $(this).on('listingUpdated', (e, data) => {
      // do something with data.listingId
    });

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jQuery

    // bad
    const sidebar = $('.sidebar');

    // good
    const $sidebar = $('.sidebar');

    // good
    const $sidebarBtn = $('.sidebar-btn');
  • 25.2 Cache jQuery lookups.
    // bad
    function setSidebar() {
      $('.sidebar').hide();

      // ...

      $('.sidebar').css({
        'background-color': 'pink'
      });
    }

    // good
    function setSidebar() {
      const $sidebar = $('.sidebar');
      $sidebar.hide();

      // ...

      $sidebar.css({
        'background-color': 'pink'
      });
    }
  • 25.3 For DOM queries use Cascading $('.sidebar ul') or parent > child $('.sidebar > ul'). jsPerf

  • 25.4 Use find with scoped jQuery object queries.

    // bad
    $('ul', '.sidebar').hide();

    // bad
    $('.sidebar').find('ul').hide();

    // good
    $('.sidebar ul').hide();

    // good
    $('.sidebar > ul').hide();

    // good
    $sidebar.find('ul').hide();

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ECMAScript 5 Compatibility

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ECMAScript 6+ (ES 2015+) Styles

Why? They are not finalized, and they are subject to change or to be withdrawn entirely. We want to use JavaScript, and proposals are not JavaScript yet.

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Testing

    function foo() {
      return true;
    }
  • 28.2 No, but seriously:

  • Whichever testing framework you use, you should be writing tests!

  • Strive to write many small pure functions, and minimize where mutations occur.

  • Be cautious about stubs and mocks - they can make your tests more brittle.

  • We primarily use mocha at Airbnb. tape is also used occasionally for small, separate modules.

  • 100% test coverage is a good goal to strive for, even if it's not always practical to reach it.

  • Whenever you fix a bug, write a regression test. A bug fixed without a regression test is almost certainly going to break again in the future.

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Performance

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Resources

Learning ES6

Read This

Tools

Other Style Guides

Other Styles

Further Reading

Books

Blogs

Podcasts

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In the Wild

This is a list of organizations that are using this style guide. Send us a pull request and we'll add you to the list.

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